Electoral and Referendum Bylaws

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Adopted 2008-02
Last Modified 2017-10

The Electoral and Referendum Bylaws outlines the practices for holding an election or referendum in the EUS. It outlines the responsibilities of Elections EUS, how to form a "No" Campaign, how to hold candidates accountable, what forms of communication can be used, and more.

Article 1: Definitions 

1.1 The Engineering Undergraduate Society of McGill University (hereinafter referred to as “EUS​”) is the registered name of the non-for-profit corporation representing the engineering and architecture undergraduate students at McGill University
1.2 The Board ​of ​Governors​ of the EUS is the administrative board of the Engineering Undergraduate Society of McGill University which is composed of Administrators as defined by the EUS Constitution
1.3 The EUS shall recognise all Departmental Societies, Clubs, and Design Teams set forth in the relevant articles of the EUS Constitution as EUS Groups
1.4 The EUS Elections committee, hereinafter referred to as “Elections ​EUS​” is an EUS committee that serves as an independent and impartial agency composed of Regular Members of the Engineering Undergraduate Society.
1.5 The Chief Returning Officer ​(hereinafter referred to as CRO​) is the officer in charge of organizing and supervising the Official ​Elections of the EUS.
1.6 The Deputy Returning Officer (hereinafter referred to as DRO​) is the officer in charge of organizing and supervising their respective Departmental Society’s elections.
1.7 An Electoral ​Coordinator (hereinafter referred to as EC​) is a member of Elections ​EUS tasked with aiding the CRO ​and DROs ​with their duties.
1.8 Regular ​Elections shall refer to the regular elections outlined in the EUS Constitution, including but not limited to the elections of the EUS Executive Team, SSMU Representative(s), and Members-at-Large of the Board of Governors. It shall also refer to elections for executive positions of Departmental Societies as outlined in their respective Terms of Reference. It shall exclude any and all positions specifically stated as selected by Selection Committee.
1.9 Any period consisting of referendum question submission, referendum question campaigning, and referendum question voting shall be called a Referendum  Period​.
1.10 Regular ​Elections and Referendum ​Periods shall be hereinafter collectively referred to as Official ​Elections​.
1.11 A third-party shall be defined as an individual or a group of individuals that is not a member of the ​Official ​Campaign but that can be linked, within reason, to the Campaign.
1.12 A Referendum ​Question is a single proposition posed to the electorate, which they either accept or reject through a vote conducted during a Referendum Period.
1.13 The Electoral Calendar refers to official periods and deadlines related to Official Elections and is further defined below.
1.14 An Online ​Voting ​System shall refer to an online platform where voters can participate in Official ​Elections​.
1.15 A “No” ​Campaign ​Committee ​is a registered campaign committee created to encourage Regular Members to vote against an unopposed candidate.
1.16 A Referendum Committee is a registered committee created with the intent of promoting a particular response to a referendum question.
1.17 An Official ​Campaign is a campaign run by a Referendum ​Committee ​or “No”  Campaign ​Committee or by a candidate in a Regular ​Election​. The members of an Official ​Campaign are the members of the related Committee, or the candidate. 

Article 2: Purpose 

2.1 Elections EUS shall be supervised, although not superseded, by the EUS President.
2.2 Elections ​EUS shall administer Official ​Elections​, and shall be the sole body to do so. Elections ​EUS shall be synonymous with the “Office of the Chief Returning Officer​.”
2.3 Elections ​EUS shall be responsible for enforcing these Bylaws in all Official Elections​.

Article 3: Responsibilities 

3.1 Elections EUS shall:
3.1.1 Act as the final authority in Official ​Elections​, subject only to appeal by the Board of Governors;
3.1.2 Guarantee all Official ​Elections ​are accessible to Regular Members.
3.1.3 Promote the Official ​Elections to the members of the Engineering Undergraduate Society, encourage electoral participation, and provide support to members who wish to partake in Official ​Elections​;
3.1.4 Facilitate the flow of information in regards to Official ​Elections by the use of the EUS communication channels
3.1.5 Elections ​EUS shall develop and present the Electoral Calendar to the EUS Board of Governors for ratification by a simple majority at its second session of the Summer. After ratification, the Electoral ​Calendar must be made public in the next week.
3.1.6 Elections ​EUS shall distribute the nomination forms for positions contested in Regular ​Elections and make them available to all Regular Members.
3.1.7 Elections ​EUS shall create and distribute a guide to the elections with information regarding each position contested in Regular ​Elections​, references to the responsibilities of each portfolio, and information about the procedures, timelines, and regulations of the Elections.
3.1.8 Elections ​EUS shall organize a candidate debate for the positions contested in Regular ​Elections​.
3.1.9 Elections ​EUS ​should ​organize ​a ​public ​forum ​for ​discussion ​between  all ​referendum ​committees ​the ​format ​of ​which ​is ​to ​the ​discretion ​of  the CRO
3.1.10 Elections ​EUS​, alongside the Information Technology Committee of the EUS, shall be responsible for the technology infrastructure of the Official  Elections​, including but not limited to the Online ​Voting ​System and the official website for the election.
3.1.11 Elections ​EUS shall facilitate and staff at least one (1) polling station set in one of the engineering buildings to provide accessibility for Official  Elections​.
3.1.12 Elections ​EUS shall ensure proper communication between the CRO​, the Deputy ​Returning ​Officers and the Electoral ​Coordinators​.
3.1.13 Elections ​EUS shall write a comprehensive exit report outlining the success and failures of the Official ​Elections along with recommendations for the future Elections ​EUS team. The exit report shall be submitted to the EUS President by May 15th of that year.

Article 4: Accountability ​to ​the ​Electorate

4.1.1 EUS Council or the Board of Governors may, at any time, request a report on any matter pertaining to Official ​Elections or the conduct of Elections  EUS​. The CRO​, representing Elections ​EUS​, shall have at least forty-eight (48) hours to present the report to the relevant entity at their next meeting, or at a special meeting called for this purpose.
4.1.1.1 Any Regular Member who suspects that an irregularity has occurred during an Official ​Election may petition:
4.1.1.1.a their Class Representative to request a report to Council, or
4.1.1.1.b the Chair of the Board of Governors to request a report to the Board of Governors.

Article 5: Membership 

5.1 Elections ​EUS shall be composed of:
5.1.1 The Chief ​Returning ​Officer​;
5.1.2 The Deputy ​Returning ​Officers​;
5.1.3 Electoral ​Coordinators​;
5.2 The Chief ​Returning ​Officer shall act as the chair and financial officer of Elections ​EUS and have final say in its decisions.
5.2.1 The CRO shall be appointed by a Selection Committee and thereafter ratified by the EUS Board of Governors with a two-thirds (2/3) majority at its first session of the Summer.
5.3 The Deputy ​Returning ​Officers shall be appointed by each Departmental Society and shall be responsible for the Official ​Elections ​of their respective Departmental Society.
5.4 Electoral ​Coordinators shall be appointed at the discretion of the CRO ​to fulfill specific responsibilities and duties of Elections ​EUS including but not limited to:
5.4.1 coordination of polling stations,
5.4.2 organization of debates,
5.4.3 supervision of technology infrastructure,
5.4.4 reviewing nomination forms.
5.5 No member of Elections ​EUS may be:
5.5.1 A candidate for any position contested in the Regular ​Elections or a proposer of any Referendum ​Question of the present Academic Year;
5.5.2 A member of an Official ​Campaign​.
5.5.3 An executive of any group that endorses candidates or holds a public position on referenda;
5.5.4 A person involved with a candidate’s campaign.
5.6 EUS Council or the Board of Governors shall reserve the right to censure and/or remove any member of Elections ​EUS with a motion approved by two-thirds (2/3) majority.

Article 6: Nomination

6.1 Official nomination forms shall be provided by the CRO​, and must contain the following statement unaltered: “We, the undersigned members of the Engineering Undergraduate Society of McGill University, do hereby nominate _____________ for the office of ___________.”
6.2 Nominators shall be required to record on the nomination form their name, signature, and year of study. Each nomination form must also be signed by the candidate and indicate the candidate’s telephone number and email address.
6.3 Nomination forms shall include the following statement: “Candidates for a position must read the EUS Constitution, as well as all relevant bylaws, which include the following:”. A list of relevant bylaws and policies for each position shall be determined by the current EUS Executive Committee, and be included on the form. Electronic copies of the EUS Constitution, bylaws, and policies shall be made available to all candidates.
6.4 Nomination forms must be presented to the Chief Returning Officer before the end of the nomination period.
6.5 On submission of a nomination form to the CRO​, each nominee must sign a statement indicating that they have read and understood the EUS Constitution, as well as all bylaws and policies relevant to the position. No nomination form shall be accepted without this statement.
6.6 Nomination form signatures must be collected by the candidate. The CRO may override this if there are extenuating circumstances.
6.7 Nominations for President must be signed by fifty (50) Regular Members.
6.8 Nominations for other Executive Committee positions, Engineering Representatives to S.S.M.U. Council, and Members-at-Large of the Board of Governors must be signed by twenty-five (25) Regular Members.
6.9 Should only one (1) person be nominated for a position during the nomination period, the nomination period shall be extended for two (2) School Days and notice given thereof.
6.10 In the event that one or more positions remains vacant following the extended nomination period, a by-election including all vacant positions shall be held.
6.10.1 The by-election shall allot for at least one (1) week of nomination period, one (1) week of campaign period, and two (2) days of voting period.
6.10.2 Should a position remain vacant following the by-election nomination period, the position will be filled by a selection committee composed of the outgoing executive committee, the incoming executive committee, and three (3) members-at-large of the EUS selected by a simple majority vote of the EUS Board of Governors.

Article 7: The ​Referendum ​Question

7.1 A Referendum Question may be initiated by:
7.1.1 A Motion of the Board of Governors of the EUS,
7.1.2 A Motion of a General Assembly,
7.1.3 A Motion of the EUS Council, or
7.1.4 A petition signed by the lesser of at least ten percent (10%) of the Regular Members or one hundred (100) Regular Members.
7.2 In the case of a referendum initiated by a Motion of the EUS Council, the Motion calling for a referendum, along with the proposed Referendum Question​, must be presented in writing at a meeting of the EUS Council. The Motion and Question shall be inscribed on the agenda of the next meeting of the EUS Council and shall require a two-thirds (2/3) majority of Council to pass. If passed, the Referendum Question shall be put to the Regular Members.
7.3 As long as changes to the Society Fee and the EUS Constitution must be ratified by referendum, the Referendum Question for these changes is automatically initiated once suggested changes are approved by both the Board and the General Assembly, and does not require a Motion or petition as specified above.

Article 8: “No” ​Campaign

8.1 In the event that a candidate for a position is unopposed, a “No” Campaign committee may be initiated by any Regular Member, provided that the committee registers itself with the CRO by submitting in writing the name of the chair of the committee, along with a list of at least five (5) other members, to the CRO at least five (5) school days before the opening of the polls.
8.2 All members of a “No” Campaign committee must also be Regular Members.
8.3 Only one (1) “No” Campaign committee will be allowed to register to oppose a candidate.
8.4 There shall be no restrictions on Regular Members using social media to express their personal views on elections.
8.5 All other “No” campaigning must be done through a registered “No” Campaign Committee.

Article 9: Referendum ​Committee

9.1 A Referendum Committee may be initiated by any Regular Member, provided that the Committee registers itself with the CRO by submitting in writing the name of the chairperson of the Committee, along with a list of at least five (5) other members, to the CRO at least seven (7) school days before the opening of the polls.
9.2 All members of Referendum Committees must also be Regular Members.
9.3 Only one (1) Referendum Committee will be allowed to register to promote each possible response to the referendum question.
9.4 There shall be no restrictions on Regular Members using social media to express their personal views on referendum questions.
9.5 All other referendum campaigning must be done through a registered Referendum Committee.

Article 10: Campaigning 

10.1 All campaign material must be posted by a candidate or a “No” Campaign Committee, or a Referendum Committee and approved by the CRO  ​before posting. The CRO ​has the right to prohibit the use of the material if it violates one of the regulations described in this article. 
10.1.1 Should a candidate not reside in the Montreal area during the campaign period, or be unable to give class announcements or post campaign materials, they may designate a single person to carry out these tasks for them. The designated person must be approved by the CRO and shall be required to state their status as designated campaigner of the candidate in question when making class announcements.
10.1.2 Unapproved materials will be confiscated by Elections ​EUS​.
10.2 Posters may be posted only in the McConnell, MacDonald, Macdonald-Harrington, Frank Dawson Adams, Trottier, and Wong buildings of the Downtown campus of McGill University. Official  Campaigns  ​must comply with the rules and regulations for the posting of posters in each of these buildings and no posters may be posted anywhere else.
10.3 Class announcements are allowed during the campaign period. Official  Campaigns  ​must gain permission from each course instructor in order to make announcements.
10.3.1 Official Campaigns are allowed to write their name, the position or stance they represent, a slogan, and a link to their campaign site on lecture hall chalkboards only when they are making a class announcement.
10.4 No Banners may be hung on University grounds.
10.5 No more than a total of twenty-five (25) posters may be posted at any one time by any Official Campaigns​. Posters shall not exceed a maximum size of eleven by seventeen inches (11” x 17”).
10.6 No handbills or other items that can be distributed in similar fashion shall be permitted.
10.7 No buttons, badges, hats, or other paraphernalia shall be permitted.
10.8 No food items or other incentives may be distributed by any Official Campaign as part of their campaign.
10.9 No Official ​Campaigns ​shall engage in the practice of sending mass emails.
10.9.1 Any email listserv where the end recipients are private personal email addresses (including @mail.mcgill.ca email addresses) and for which the recipients have not voluntarily signed up are not acceptable forms of email communication.
10.9.2 Any email listserv where the end recipients are publicly available email addresses will be acceptable forms of email communication.
10.10 No campaign publication shall contain advertisements for any group, organization or interest.
10.11 No Official  Campaigns  shall receive remuneration (financially or materially) from any sponsor.
10.12 Campaigning of any kind must end at 9:00PM on the day prior to that of the elections.
10.13 No EUS publication supported either directly or indirectly by funds obtained from EUS student fees may express or imply any but a neutral attitude towards any Official ​Campaign.
10.14 No candidates shall run together for any one office.
10.15 Candidates for different positions shall not run together as a “slate”, and no candidate shall endorse any other candidate for any position in campaign materials.
10.16 No current EUS Executive shall publicly take a stance on a candidate for any position in a Regular Election.
10.17 Campaigning via social media shall be permitted under the following conditions:
10.17.1 No Official Campaign ​may purchase expanded visibility of social media posts, events, or pages.
10.17.2 Official Campaigns may create public social media events and/or pages to promote their campaign.
10.17.3 Official Campaigns may promote their campaign in any EUS-related public social media groups and pages.
10.17.4 Official Campaigns may create a campaign web site, provided that all content pertaining to the election or referendum is removed at the end of the campaign period.

Article 11: Withdrawal 

11.1 A candidate wishing to withdraw must do so no later than one (1) day before the opening of the polls by tendering a withdrawal, in writing, to the CRO​.

Article 12: Conduct ​of ​the ​Polls 

12.1 Each member of the EUS Council not running in the election may be called upon by the CRO to act as an Electoral Coordinator ​for the sole purpose of running a polling station.
12.2 EC​s shall be responsible for the conduct of their polling station.
12.3 EC​s must ensure all campaign material has been removed from the general area of the polling station. Any campaign materials found should be taken down and reported to the CRO​. Except to cast their own ballot, no member of an Official  Campaign may be allowed to loiter in the general area of the polling station.
12.4 EC​s must ensure as far as is possible the secrecy of the voting and must take any necessary, reasonable steps to prevent disorderly conduct at or near the polling station, particularly if such conduct is of a nature to influence the opinion of any voters present. All incidents of disorderly or irregular conduct must be reported in writing to the CRO​.

Article 13: Scrutineer 

13.1 Each candidate is entitled to the services of one scrutineer at each polling station. Anyone intending to act in such capacity must present to the CRO  ​an explicit written authorization to that effect, signed by the candidate.
13.2 A scrutineer is entitled to challenge the right to cast a ballot of any person claiming to be an elector.
13.2.1 If the EC​, after attempting to ascertain the validity of the challenge, permits such person to vote and the scrutineer continues to object, the EC must present to the CRO ​a written report describing the incident. The validity of such a vote will remain unquestioned until such time as a recount is ordered.
13.2.2 If the EC refuses to allow such a person to vote, that person may appeal to the CRO ​if there is time to do so before the closing of the polls. If the CRO  ascertains that the person is entitled to vote, the CRO ​will issue a certificate to that effect, which must be presented to the EC before voting. The right of appeal to the CRO ​exists in all cases in which the person claiming to be an elector is refused a ballot.
13.3 Scrutineers who abuse their privileges, or who engage in conduct which compromises the legitimacy, secrecy or impartiality of the poll may be expelled from the polling station by the EC​. If the candidate for whom the expelled scrutineer was acting wishes to appoint a replacement they must issue written authorization to that effect.
13.4 In the event of a paper ballot election, each candidate is entitled to have one scrutineer present during the counting of the ballots.
13.5 A scrutineer may not participate in the counting of the ballots. The scrutineer may only observe and object if there is any cause, and appeal to the CRO ​if necessary.

Article 14: Voting 

14.1 The CRO ​shall ensure that a complete list of eligible voters has been submitted to the Online Voting System
14.2 The CRO ​and Information Technology Director shall be available to assist and troubleshoot access problems during the polling period
14.3 All polling stations shall have a computer with internet access
14.4 Polling stations may be located in the McConnell, MacDonald, Macdonald-Harrington, Frank Dawson Adams, Trottier, and Wong buildings, at the discretion of the CRO
14.5 The location and times of polling stations shall be published in the relevant publications of the Society no later than one (1) week before the opening of the polls.
14.6 During the voting period, polling stations will be open at the CRO​’s discretion, but for no less than four (4) consecutive hours per day.
14.7 All votes must be cast by the end of the voting period as outlined in the Electoral Calendar
14.7.1 Electors waiting to vote at the time of the scheduled closing of any polling station are exempted from the above rule and may do so, but no elector shall thereafter be admitted to the waiting line
14.8 In a Regular ​Election​, the contested position shall be given to:
14.8.1 Unopposed candidates who receive a greater number of votes in favour of their election than in opposition to it or,
14.8.2The candidate who receives the most votes in favour of their election.
14.8.2.1 In the case of a tie between any number of candidates who received the highest number of votes during a Regular ​Election​, a runoff vote will be held. Only the candidates involved in the tie will be allowed to run.
14.8.2.1.a The electoral timeline for the runoff must allow for a minimum of two (2) days of campaign period and two (2) days of voting period.
14.9 A Referendum Question shall pass if it receives more votes in favour than in opposition.
14.10 Abstentions shall not be considered in determining the outcome of an Official  Election​.
14.11 Results shall be received by the DRO​s ​and EUS President at the same time that the CRO ​receives the results from the Online ​Voting ​System​.
14.11.1 In the event that the President is also a candidate in a Regular ​Election​, the results shall be received by a member of the Executive Committee not seeking office, at the discretion of the CRO​, subject to ratification by EUS Council
14.12 In the event of a technical difficulty with the Online ​Voting ​System that cannot be resolved within 24 hours of the opening of the voting period, the CRO ​shall attempt to make use of an alternative Online ​Voting ​System.
14.12.1 The voting period may be delayed until an alternate Online ​Voting ​System  is implemented.
14.12.2 If an alternative Online ​Voting ​System cannot be implemented a paper ballot system shall be enacted, at which point the voting period shall be further delayed by the amount of time necessary to set up the paper ballot system.

Article 15: Vote ​by ​Paper ​Ballot

15.1 A record shall be kept of every person who votes. The method of record-keeping will be determined by the CRO.
15.2 Paper ballot polling stations shall be open from from 9:00AM. until 5:00PM, unless the CRO ​otherwise provides and publishes notice to that effect in the above publications.
15.3 Voting by proxy is prohibited, and any attempts to do so may result in disciplinary measures to be determined by the Board of Governors.
15.4 The CRO ​must cast their ballot before the polls open and seal it under guard of the President and Chair of the Board of Governors. The results of the CRO​’s ballot shall be revealed only in the case of a tie.
15.5 Ballots shall be kept locked in the Society offices for one (1) month following the vote.
15.6 An empty ballot is counted as an abstention.
15.7 A ballot will only be rejected if:
15.7.1 More than the one (1) option is indicated in any way by the voter.
15.7.2 The marking, otherwise regular, be placed anywhere but in an intended space.
15.7.3 The initials of the ​EC do not appear on the ballot paper.
15.7.4 A ballot may only be rejected with the express authorization of the CRO and at least one other returning officer.

Article 16: Announcement ​of ​the ​Results

16.1 Once the online results are available, the CRO shall announce the results to the candidates in person and will then disseminate the results to all members of the Society within one (1) week of the reception of the results.
16.1.1 In the event of paper ballot polling, ballots must be kept safely until after the appeals period and any appeal process.
16.2 The CRO ​shall present a report at the first meeting of the EUS Board of Governors following the elections.

Article 17: Protest ​and ​Repolling

17.1 All complaints, protests or petitions regarding the campaigning or voting procedure must be made to the CRO ​no later than five (5) days following the announcement of the results. They must be in written form and must be signed by an Official  Campaign ​. Until the five-day period has expired, or until a recount is undertaken or a new election called, the CRO ​must retain all records and ballots pertaining to the Official ​Election​.
17.2 Upon receipt of a protest, the CRO ​shall forward the case to the Board ​of  Governors​, which shall have final say in the matter. The CRO ​shall aid the Board  of ​Governors .
17.3 The Board ​of ​Governors may call for a re-polling of the electorate based in response to a protest.

Article 18: Violation ​of ​Campaign ​Rules

18.1 Only Elections ​EUS shall have the authority to give demerits or sanctions, according to these bylaws.
18.2 Anyone wishing to report a violations of campaign rules shall do so in writing to the CRO​, who in conjunction with Elections ​EUS​, shall rule on the charges.
18.2.1 Violations of campaign rules must be reported in writing within five (5) school days of the close of voting to the CRO​.

Article 19: Demerits ​and ​Sanctions

19.1 The CRO ​must inform Official ​Campaigns of any demerits received via email within twelve (12) hours of the decision. The Official ​Campaign will be considered to have been informed six (6) business hours after the email has been sent. The email must inform the Official ​Campaign ​of their right to appeal.
19.2 Demerits shall be assessed on the following basis:
19.2.1 Poster outside the regulated buildings: One (1) point per poster.
19.2.2 Posters before or after the designated campaign period: One (1) point per poster.
19.2.3 Online campaigning before or after the designated campaign period: Three (3) points per post or webpage by the Official ​Campaign​.
19.2.4 Distribution of handbills: Four (4) points per incident by the Official  Campaign​; three (3) points per incident by a third-party​.
19.2.4.1 “Incident” shall be defined as one instance in which a batch of handbills are being distributed.
19.2.5 Destruction of another Official ​Campaign​’s campaign material: Six (6) points per incident by an Official ​Campaigns​; five (5) points per incident by a third-party​.
19.2.5.1 “Incident” shall be defined as one occasion in which the Official ​Campaign destroys campaign material.
19.2.6 Use of buttons, badges, hats, or other campaign paraphernalia: Four (4) points per incident by an Official ​Campaign or third-party​.
19.2.6.1 “Incident” shall be defined as one instance in which campaign paraphernalia is being used.
19.2.7 Distribution of food items or other incentives: Four (4) points per incident by an Official ​Campaign or third-party​.
19.2.7.1 “Incident” shall be defined as one instance in which food items or other incentives are distributed.
19.2.8 Class announcement campaigning by a third-party​: Two (2) points per announcement.
19.2.9 E-mail violation: Four (4) points per incident by an Official ​Campaign or third-party​.
19.2.9.1 “Incident” shall be defined as one e-mail “sent”, regardless of number of recipients.
19.2.10 Elections ​EUS shall reserve the right to apply up to ten (10) points for any violation not described in the above sections.
19.3 Violations of the following nature will result in an official censure by the CRO​: 
19.3.1 The Official ​Campaign or any member of it makes a hateful or slanderous statement regarding any member of the McGill Community during the Electoral ​or ​Referendum ​Period.
19.3.2 The Official ​Campaign interferes with the voting process.
19.3.3 The Official ​Campaign receives three (3) or more demerit points. 
19.4 Violations of the following nature will result in automatic disqualification of a candidate:
19.4.1 The candidate is in unsatisfactory academic standing.
19.4.2 The candidate receives eighteen (18) or more demerit points.
19.4.3 ​Elections ​EUS shall reserve the right to disqualify a candidate for any violation not described in this clause.
19.5 In the event that a successful candidate is disqualified, a runoff election in which all candidates with the exception of the disqualified candidate will be allowed to run.
19.5.1 The runoff election will consist of at least a three (3) day campaign period and two (2) days of voting period, preceded by an additional (2) day nomination period should there be no eligible candidates.
19.6 A “No” ​Campaign ​Committee or a Referendum ​Committee receiving eighteen (18) or more demerit points will result in an ban of the committee.
19.6.1 In the event that a committee is banned, it must immediately cease campaigning, and must immediately remove all campaign material it has posted.
19.6.2 Public notice shall be made of the ban by Elections ​EUS through appropriate communication channels.

Article 20: Amendments 

20.1 Amendments to this bylaw must be approved by a simple majority vote of the Board ​of ​Governors of the EUS.

Article 21: Interpretation 

21.1 In the case of a conflict between this bylaw and the following documents, the following documents prevail in the order they are listed in:
21.1.1 The Quebec Companies Act
21.1.2 The EUS Letters Patent
21.1.3 The EUS Constitution